Botulinum toxin

What is otulinum toxin?


Botulinum toxin, therefore, is a complex of neurotoxin secreted by a microorganism called Clostridium Botulinum, this toxin is completely biological, that is, it is not created chemically or synthetically. It works by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the level of the peripheral cholinergic nerve endings, thus, achieving temporary relaxation of the striated musculature, (which is all the muscles we use to perform voluntary movements). In short: Relax the muscles we want.

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Types of Botulinum Toxin


The different strains of Clostridium Botulinum produce 7 immunologically distinct toxin types (from A to G). Those approved for clinical use are A and B. Among them, the most used is type A for its effectiveness.

In Europe different brands of botulinum toxin type A are marketed. The essential differences between one brand and another are practically the presentation and the laboratory that makes them.

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A study conducted by Dras. Mar Mira and Sofía Ruiz, specialists in aesthetic medicine, in which a sample of 33 women and men, between the ages of 20 – 65 years, was used for a period of 6 months; showed that there were no significant differences between the three brands mentioned, approved for cosmetic use in Spain.

The parameters to be evaluated were:

  1. The time until the start of the action
  2. Injection pain
  3. Results
  4. Duration of the effects
  5. Side effects; which none were found

Uses of Botulinum Toxin

Initially the use of this treatment was medical. The first clinical application of the local infiltration of botulinum toxin was carried out in 1977 as corrective treatment of strabismus, an ophthalmological pathology characterized by the hyperactivity of the muscles responsible for mobilizing the eyeball. Since then, its use has spread not only in the field of healing medicine, but also in the field of medicine and aesthetic surgery. There are more and more applications for this treatment, but in this article we will focus on the aesthetic use of it. We can distinguish different types of applications depending on the insertion points and the desired cosmetic effects.

Among the aesthetic applications, the following stand out: Facial wrinkles, hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) and eyebrow elevation.

Treatment of facial wrinkles

This is the most popular aesthetic treatment of recent years.

We all know someone or we know of people who have had this treatment, however it can not be taken so lightly.

For the treatment of facial wrinkles it is necessary to have a broad knowledge of the facial muscles, as well as experience and skill to achieve optimal aesthetic results.

For this, Clinica Sanza recommends that it is a highly trained professional who performs the procedure.

In order to better explain the treatment of wrinkles with botulinum toxin, it is good to know that there are two types of wrinkles, and both are treatable: dynamic and static wrinkles.

Dynamic wrinkles:

These are all those wrinkles, or grooves in the skin, which are denoted at the moment of making an expression or some facial movement such as smiling or frowning. These wrinkles do not usually cause any discomfort to anyone, but over the years they may be getting deeper and more noticeable, even annoying at certain ages or unsightly.

Static wrinkles:

The dynamic wrinkles with the passing of time become static, this means that without having to make any expression or voluntary movement, they can be seen with the naked eye on the face.

These wrinkles appear as age advances.

As mentioned above, both types of wrinkles are treatable, as long as the points of application of the botulinum toxin are carefully analyzed.

The doctor must assess his face and gestures well, as well as his lines of expression. Pay attention to each of the facial movements that bother you and agree with you that wrinkles and lines of expression can be attenuated or paralyzed completely so that the result looks like the one you want.


Hyperhidrosis treatment (sweat)

Hyperhidrosis is a hyperstimulation of the sweat glands, of any part of the body, which can be stopped by botulinum toxin.

Botulinum toxin type A treatment for frontal, axillary, palmar or plantar hyperhidrosis is extremely effective. The mechanism of action of the toxin at this level, consists of the chemical denervation of the receptors of the sympathetic nerve endings in the sweat glands, which inhibits the creation of sweat. The results are perceived after 3 or 4 days of the application of the treatment, and the duration of the treatment is about 6 months.

The application of the treatment repeatedly over the years, can definitely make the problem disappear, so we recommend repeating it 2 or 3 times a year, if necessary, and for a few years so that each time you need less dose or get definitive results .


Elevation of the eyebrows

Another way to use botulinum toxin is for relaxation of the lateral and external portion of the orbicular muscle of the eye. The aesthetic effect of the elevation of the tail of the eyebrow is a sign of rejuvenation especially in women.

We must bear in mind that the muscle that is responsible for raising the eyebrows is the frontal muscle, especially in its central part.

In the lateral part or tail of the eyebrow the orbicular muscle, just below the hair of the eyebrow, has the function of pulling the eyebrow downwards, so when applying botulinum toxin in this region, it is possible to relax this muscle and thus elevate the tail of the eyebrow to give a more refined and youthful appearance.

Care must be taken not to raise the tail of the eyebrows too much and cause the effect of a surprised face.

Photos before and after botulinum toxin

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